Five noncoding small RNAs (sRNAs) called the Qrr1-5 sRNAs act at the heart of the Vibrio harveyi quorum-sensing cascade. The Qrr sRNAs posttranscriptionally regulate 20 mRNA targets. Here, we use a method we call RSort-Seq that is based on unbiased high-throughput screening to define the critical bases in Qrr4 that specify its function. The power of our study comes from using the screening results to pinpoint particular nucleotides for follow-up biological analyses that define function. Using this approach, we discover how Qrr4 differentially regulates two of its targets, luxO and luxR. We also show how this strategy can be used to identify intramolecular suppressor mutations. This approach can be applied to any sRNA and any mRNA target.